The concept of Binary oppositions in Arthur Miller Death of a salesman

 





     

Tentative outline:                                               
         I. Introduction
    a. General Background
    b. Argument
    c. Literature Review
    d. Methodology and Approach
    e. Definition of key Terms
         II. Ignoring ethics and the fall of tragic hero
              a. willy’s breaking social expectation
              b. Adultery with a woman
         III. Happy’s  Faults
              a. Happy’s sexual gratification
              b. fiancées of three executives
              c. Letta and Miss Forsythe (prostitute)
         IV. Biff's fault
              a. stealing the football
              b. breaking social expectation
              c. stealing  Bill Oliver’s fountain pen
         V. Conclusion
              a. Summing up
              b. New Findings
              c. Suggestions for Further Research
           Bibliography
           
        CHAPTER

   1
I. Introduction
     The present thesis  is an attempt to explore the concept of Binary oppositions  in Arthur Miller's death of a salesman  moreover, structuralism attempts to view reality in terms of pairs of oppositions, contradictory and complementary pairs.
General overview

     Arthur Miller was born in New York City  in 1915  .when he was at the age of seventeen wrote death of a salesman as a short story while he was working for his father 's company  and started writing Drama in Michigan university. Some of his important works are The Man Who Had All the Luck (1944), All My Sons (1947), Death of a salesman (1949) which won a Pulitzer prize ,a Tony Award , his second Drama Desk Award .
     Death of a salesman is about the life of a travelling salesman .He is now sixty years old and felt despair and failure .In the culture of American society he was known as the honorable person but unclean with the rascality of business .the hero of this tragedy is Willy a common man who against his desire forced to live due to the desires and tastes of other people and in this way he betrayed and cheated but his honor cause him to feel regret and eventually committed suicide. Death of a salesman is about self-delusion and about families .His wrong notions that lead him to death and implied message of the play not to keep unachievable dream .


Statement of the problem

     The present thesis is an attempt to explore the concept of binary opposition in Arthur Miller 's death of a salesman .Binary oppositions seems to be complementary in a way to lead to a definite meaning in structuralism .At the center of this debate the following questions are to be answered:
 Is there any significant relationship between ignoring ethics and the fall of tragic hero in death of a salesman by Arthur Miller ?
Does belittling of ethics by Biff have any significant effect on his future ?
Does disdain of moral issues have any significant effect on Happy's future life?
Who is Bernard? How is he different from Lomans boy   ? Can happy gain power and pleasure by seducing the fiancées of three executives through thriving on sexual gratification?
Did Biff's fault as a  student  have any significant effect  in his future especially as his father encouraged him by calling  his sin  initiative when for the first time steeled the football ?
Does Willy's breaking social expectation such as being talkative in society lead his failure in his job?
Is it true that Bernard's abiding the rules cause his big success?
Does Happy's insisting on lying bring for him lasting happiness?
Was Willy well-liked or he tries to make feel better by living in the world of delusion ?




Significance of problem:

     Although some critics believe that the capitalistic system of government in the U.S.A lead to Willy's suiciding, in this thesis, I want to mention the fact that ignoring of ethical issues cause willy to commit a suicide.

Limitation and delimitation of the study

     In spite of the fact that Arthur Miller has a lot of great work , In this research I only concentrate on his death of a salesman  and the concept of binary opposition on this work In addition I draw a board line between Miller's other works and other researchable subjects.


The Argument
     Structuralism with its linguistic background deals with Langue/Parole in general and Signifier/Signified in particular .The Signifier is an external object, which reminds us of a mental concept (the signified) or picture of things we see, hear or read .Saussure has a model for each sign, it includes:
                         Signifier
Sign
                          Signified

what makes language meaningful to us is not a real connection between words ,but only an arbitrary relationship between the signs and meanings attributed to them .As an example consider the sign-systems of traffic lights:
Red-Amber-Green
Signifier (Red)
Signified (stop)
The Sign signifies only within the system "red=stop/green =go/amber=prepare for red or green”. The relationship between the signifier and signified is arbitrary: there is no natural bound between red and stop , no matter how natural it may feel ... Each color in the traffic system signifies not by asserting a positive univocal meaning but by marking a difference ,a distinction with in a system of opposites and contrasts .(Selden,p53)
     Structuralist attempted to show systematically, even scientifically literature maybe understood as parts of signs, which get their meaning based on their difference from one another .They generally follow Saussure's lead in believing that sign systems must be understood in terms of binary oppositions .
     According to proponents of structuralism all elements of human culture including literature may be understood as parts of a system of signs .Charles Sanders pierce and Saussure posit the possibility of approaching and analyzing a text systematically through semiology.
In fact, the main focus of structuralism is binary oppositions,the concept of which is used in analyzing ,Death of a salesman .Binary oppositions as an important aspect of structuralism are two complementary and at the same time contradictory items .As an example one may suggest man and woman who on the one hand contradict each other and on the other hand complete each other .
     The present Research is an attempt to discover the binary aspects of the above mentioned play .Moreover, structuralism attempts to view reality in terms of pairs of opposites , contradictory and complementary pairs at the same time but what are binary oppositions and , what is their significance?
To aid in our examination, a list of binary oppositions is complied .
Salvation /damnation
Good/evil
Original/copy
Primary/secondary
Inside/outside
Reality/appearance
Essence/accident
Soul/body
Pure/corrupted
Father/son
Male/female
Speech/writing
Religious/secular
     At this point ,we may want to notice how these pairs tend not merely to support but indeed  to verify one another: Men are superior to woman ,speech is superior to writing because the spoken word is original of which writing is only a copy .
Some more binary oppositions are as follow:
Center/margins
 Normal/deviant
Natural/unnatural
White/black
Truth/fiction
Philosophy/myth
Sciences/humanities
Classical/romantic
Modern/postmodern
Reality/illusion
Poet/critic
Master /slave
Teacher/student
High culture /pop culture
Id /Ego
Knowledge/ignorance
Past/present
Present/future
Base/superstructure
Beginning/end
Birth/death
Waking/dreaming
Old/young
     Nietzsche in his Birth of tragedy , and Erich Auer Bach when introducing the concept of figure ,put emphasis on the binary oppositions as the basis for the structure of tragedy and Bible respectively .
           The two binary oppositions in Greek mythology regarding the base of tragedy are Apollonian and Dionysian .Apollonian is the shape of logic ,reason ,peace, rhythm and discipline ,while Dionysian is the voice of lulls , mysticism ,reproduction and birth .Through Apollo and Dionysus the two art Deities of Greeks , we come to recognize that in Greece there existed a tremendous opposition in the original aims between the Apollonian art of sculpture and the non-imagistic Dionysian art of music .The Apollonian artist is based on dreams , while the Dionysian one on ecstasies and reality .(Nietzche,33)
     Furthermore, the significance of the complementary pairs i the Holy Bible can be better perceived through Auer Bach’s essays on it .The Bible is made of two parts the Old and the new testaments. The concept of figure or binary oppositions can be seen in the story of Moses and Joshua as well as that of Adam and Eve as the first binary oppositions.



CHAPTER
2


Review of Literature
 The Primary Source of this research is Miller, Arthur, Death of a salesman, Toronto, Thomson Wadsworth, 1970
 the secondary sources are
Bressler ,Charles. Literary criticism .Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs .New Jersey .1980
Structuralist attempted to show systematically ,even scientifically literature maybe understood as parts of signs ,which get their meaning based on their difference from one another .They generaly follow Saussure's lead in believing that sign systems must be understood in terms of binary oppositions .

Eagleton, Terry .literary theory, University of Minnesota Up .1986
According to proponents of structralism all elements of human culture including litrature may be understood as parts of a system of signs .Charles Sanders pierce and Saussure posit the possibility of approaching and analyzing a text systematically through semiology.

Nietzsche, the Birth of Tragedy. Random, House, Toronto, 1967.p33-34
Nietzche in his Birth of tragedy , and Erich Auer Bach when introducing the concept of figure ,put emphasis on the binary oppositions as the basis for the structure of tragedy and Bible respectively .
     The two binary oppositions in Greek mythology regarding the base of tragedy are Apollonian and Dionysian .Apollonian is the shape of logic ,reason ,peace, rhythm and discipline ,while Dionysian is the voice of lulls , mysticism ,reproduction and birth .Through Apollo and Dionysus the two art Deities of Greeks , we come to recognize that in Greece there existed a tremendous opposition in the original aims between the Apollonian art of sculpture and the non-imagistic Dionysian art of music .The Apollonian artist is based on dreams , while the Dionysian one on ecstasies and reality .
Selden, Raman. A reader's Guide to contemporary Literary Theory, New York, Harvester wheat sheaf, 1989
Structuralism with its linguistic background deals with Langue/Parole in general and Signifier/Signified in particular .The Signifier is an external object, which reminds us of a mental concept (the signified) or picture of things we see, hear or read .Saussure has a model for each sign, it includes:
                         Signifier
Sign
                          Signified

what makes language meaningful to us is not a real connection between words ,but only an arbitrary relationship between the signs and meanings attributed to them .As an example consider the sign-systems of traffic lights:
Red-Amber-Green
Signifier(Red)
Signified(stop)
The Sign signifies only within the system "red=stop/green =go/amber=prepare for red or green”. The relationship between the signifier and signified is arbitrary: there is no natural bound between red and stop , no matter how natural it may feel ... Each color in the traffic system signifies not by asserting a positive univocal meaning but by marking a difference ,a distinction with in a system of opposites and contrasts .


 The Holy Bible, St. Luke; 23:15-18
     The significance of the complementary pairs i the Holy Bible can be better perceived through Auer Bach’s essays on it .The Bible is made of two parts the Old and the New testaments. The concept of figure or binary oppositions can be seen in the story of Moses and Joshua as well as that of Adam and Eve as the first binary oppositions.

    
Methodology and Approach

     This research is aimed at the discovery of some binary opposition in Arthur Miller's death of a salesman moreover, structuralism attempts to view reality in terms of pairs of oppositions, contradictory and complementary pairs.


Outline of the chapters


     With the above mentioned principles and the brief application of Binary Opposition in mind, the design for this research will be as follows:     
        I. Introduction
                 A. General Background
                 B. Argument
                 C. literature Review
                 D. Thesis outline           
II.   Methodology and Approach
                 A.  Definition of key terms
III. Ignoring ethics and the fall of tragic hero
                     A.willy’s breaking social expectation
                     B. Adultery with a woman
                     
IV. Loman’s Brothers Faults
             A.Happy’s sexual gratification
                      a. fiancées of three executives
                      b. Letta and Miss Forsythe (prostitute)
             B. Biff's fault
                     a.stealing the football
                     b. breaking social expectation
                     c. stealing  Bill Oliver’s fountain pen
                    
                    
V. Conclusion
                  a . Summing up
                  b. Findings
                  c. Suggestion for Further Research
                  d. work cited






Definition of key Terms   
Deconstruction: Introduced in America in 1966 by Jacques Derrida's speech at Johns Hopkins University , this post structural approach to literary analysis is best considered a strategic device for interpreting a text rather than a critical theory ,school of criticism , or philosophy .Such theories,  schools of criticism and philosophies ,Derrida asserts, must identify with a body of Knowledge that they decree to be true or ,at least , to contain truth. The idea that truth or a core of metaphysical ideals can be definitely believed ,articulated , and supported is exactly what Derrida and deconstructists wish to deconstruct .(Bressler  ,Charles  E.2007 .337)
Binary operations(binary oppositions):A term introduced into literary theory by Jacques Derrida to represent the conceptual oppositions on which he believes western metaphysics is based ,such as light/dark , good /bad , and big / small . (Bressler  ,Charles  E.2007 .334)

sign:A term used in linguistics and first used by the French structuralist Ferdinand de Saussure to denote the definition for a word .According to Saussure ,a word is not a symbol that equals something else ;rather, a word is a sign (something that has meaning )composed of both a signifier and a signified .For Saussure ,a word does not represent a referent in the objective world , but an abstract concept . .(Bressler  ,Charles  E.2007 .362)
signified :A term used by the French structuralist Ferdinand  de Saussure that denotes one part of a word .Saussure proposed that all words are actually signs composed of two parts : the signifier and the signified .the signified is the concept to which the signifier _a written or spoken word or sound, refers . Similar to the two sides of a sheet of paper, the linguistic sign is the union of the signifier and the signified. (Bressler  ,Charles  E.2007 .362)
signifier: A term used by the French structuralist Ferdinand  de Saussure that denotes one part of a word .The signifier is the spoken or written constituent , such as the sound /t/ and the orthographic (written )symbol t . (Bressler  ,Charles  E.2007 .362)
CHAPTER
3
III. Ignoring ethics and the fall of tragic hero
     Due to neglecting ethics in death of a salesman by Arthur Miller ,the main character do immoral issues such as adultery and lying  which certainly lead to not only his downfall but also his son’s .
     THE WOMAN: Gee, you are self-centered! Why so sad? You are
the saddest, self-centeredest soul I ever did see-saw. (She
laughs. He kisses her.) Come on inside, drummer boy. It’s silly
to be dressing in the middle of the night. (As knocking is
heard.) Aren’t you going to answer the door?
WILLY: They’re knocking on the wrong door.
THE WOMAN: But I felt the knocking. And he heard us talking
in here. Maybe the hotel’s on fire!
WILLY (his terror rising): It’s a mistake.
THE WOMAN: Then tell him to go away!
WILLY: There’s nobody there.
THE WOMAN: It’s getting on my nerves, Willy. There’s somebody
standing out there and it’s getting on my nerves!
WILLY (pushing her away from him): All right, stay in the bathroom
here, and don’t come out. I think there’s a law in Massachusetts
about it, so don’t come out. It may be that new room
clerk. He looked very mean. So don’t come out. It’s a mistake,
there’s no fire  (Death of a salesman 86)
WILLY: Get out of here! Go back, go back... (Suddenly striding for
the ordinary.) This is Miss Francis, Biff, she’s a buyer. They’re
painting her room. Go back, Miss Francis, go back... (Death of a salesman 87)    

WILLY (grabbing for Biff): I gave you an order!
BIFF: Don’t touch me, you — liar!    (Death of a Salesman 89)

As a case in point One can easily conclude from the above part  when willy committed an adultery with a woman, He ruined both his life and biff’s future .
In fact when Biff witnesses willy’s affair with the woman, which is enough to shake his faith in everything his father has ever told him; Furthermore, as Biff knew his father more, not only called him liar but also he didn’t listen to his father’s advice on enrolling summer school so that he couldn’t continue his education; therefore He missed his future.
Willy’s breaking social expectation
Willy’s inappropriate social behavior result in losing his respect .In fact ,this idea can be pictured as an array of events with so much effect on Willy’s life especially when he lose his job; moreover ,as Willy went to his boss Howard Wagner to ask for a job in New York office close to his home, Howard refused willy’s request but Willy continued to beg Howard with increasing urgency until he suspended willy from work .
WILLY: I tell ya why. Howard. Speaking frankly and between the
two of us, y’know — I’m just a little tired.
HOWARD: Oh, I could understand that, Willy. But you’re a road
man, Willy, and we do a road business. We’ve only got a halfdozen
salesmen on the floor here.
WILLY: God knows, Howard. I never asked a favor of any man.
But I was with the firm when your father used to carry you in
here in his arms. HOWARD: I know that, Willy, but...
WILLY: Your father came to me the day you were born and asked
me what I thought of the name of Howard, may he rest in
peace.
HOWARD: I appreciate that, Willy, but there just is no spot here
for you. If I had a spot I’d slam you right in, but I just don’t
have a single solitary spot. (He looks for his lighter. Willy has
picked it up and gives it to him. Pause.)
WILLY (with increasing anger): Howard, all I need to set my table
is fifty dollars a week.
HOWARD: But where am I going to put you, kid?
WILLY: Look, it isn’t a question of whether I can sell merchandise,
is it?
HOWARD: No, but it’s a business, kid, and everybody’s gotta pull
his own weight.
WILLY (desperately): Just let me tell you a story. Howard...
HOWARD: ‘Cause you gotta admit, business is business.
WILLY (angrily): Business is definitely business, but just listen
for a minute. You don’t understand this. When I was a boy —
eighteen, nineteen — I was already on the road. And there was
a question in my mind as to whether selling had a future for
me. Because in those days I had a yearning to go to Alaska.
See, there were three gold strikes in one month in Alaska, and
I felt like going out. Just for the ride, you might say.
HOWARD (barely interested): Don’t say.
WILLY: Oh, yeah, my father lived many years in Alaska. He was
an adventurous man. We’ve got quite a little streak of selfreliance
in our family. I thought I’d go out with my older
brother and try to locate him, and maybe settle in the North
with the old man. And I was almost decided to go, when I met a
salesman in the Parker House. His name was Dave Singleman.
And he was eighty-four years old, and he’d drummed merchandise
in thirty-one states. And old Dave, he’d go up to his
room, y’understand,…. (Death of a salesman 54)

In addition ,willy confessed to Linda that I couldn’t stop myself from talking too much .
WILLY: I don’t know the reason for it, but they just pass me by.
I’m not noticed.
LINDA: But you’re doing wonderful, dear. You’re making seventy
to a hundred dollars a week.
WILLY: But I gotta be at it ten, twelve hours a day. Other men —
I don’t know — they do it easier. I don’t know why — I can’t
stop myself — I talk too much. A man oughta come in with a
few words. One thing about Charley. He’s a man of few words,
and they respect him .   (Death of a salesman 24)                    
On the contrary, according to Willy’s confession ,Charley is a man of few words which cause people treated charley with respect .

IV. Loman’s Brothers Faults
 Happy’s immoral acts doesn’t offer him convenience
Considering Happy’s life, the reader will recognize that Happy’s did such as be duplicitous to his family, take bribes at work or sleep with the girlfriend of his colleagues doesn’t provide him comfort .
HAPPY: I get that any time I want, Biff. Whenever I feel disgusted.
The only trouble is, it gets like bowling or something. I
just keep knockin’ them over and it doesn’t mean anything.
You still run around a lot?
BIFF: Naa. I’d like to find a girl — steady, somebody with substance.
HAPPY: That’s what I long for.
BIFF: Go on! You’d never come home.
HAPPY: I would! Somebody with character, with resistance! Like
Mom, y’know? You’re gonna call me a bastard when I tell you
this. That girl Charlotte I was with tonight is engaged to be
married in five weeks. (He tries on his new hat.)
BIFF: No kiddin’!
HAPPY: Sure, the guy’s in line for the vice-presidency of the
store. I don’t know what gets into me, maybe I just have an
overdeveloped sense of competition or something, but I went
and ruined her, and furthermore I can’t get rid of her. And he’s
the third executive I’ve done that to. Isn’t that a crummy characteristic?
And to top it all, I go to their weddings! (Indignantly,
but laughing.) Like I’m not supposed to take bribes.
Manufacturers offer me a hundred-dollar bill now and then to
throw an order their way. You know how honest I am, but it’s
like this girl, see. I hate myself for it. Because I don’t want the
girl, and still, I take it and — I love it! (Death of a Salesman 15)
In fact, after Happy seduced the Fiancées of three executives just to gain a perception of power and pleasure and then attended their weddings or taking bribes from manufactures to put their items on display , he declared  "I hate myself for it. Because I don't want the girl, and, still, I take it and — I love it!”, in addition this statement shows that he is not content with his life.
Adulterous affair of Happy laid down his life as a case in point if happy didnt flirt with girls such as Letta and Miss Forsythe , he would get married and start a family, on the contrary Bernard have not only wife but also  two sons .
HAPPY (raising his head): Sh!
STANLEY: What?
HAPPY: You notice I wasn’t lookin’ right or left, was I?
STANLEY: No.
HAPPY: And my eyes are closed.
STANLEY: So what’s the...?
HAPPY: Strudel’s comin’.
STANLEY (catching on, looks around): Ah, no, there’s no — (He
breaks off as a furred, lavishly dressed girl enters and sits at
the next table. Both follow her with their eyes.)
STANLEY: Geez, how’d ya know?
HAPPY: I got radar or something. (Staring directly at her profile.)
Oooooooo… Stanley.
STANLEY: I think that’s for you, Mr. Loman.
HAPPY: Look at that mouth. Oh, God. And the binoculars.
STANLEY: Geez, you got a life, Mr. Loman.
HAPPY: Wait on her.
STANLEY (going to the Girl’s table): Would you like a menu,
ma’am?
GIRL: I’m expecting someone, but I’d like a...
HAPPY: Why don’t you bring her — excuse me, miss, do you
mind? I sell champagne, and I’d like you to try my brand. Bring
her a champagne, Stanley.
GIRL: That’s awfully nice of you.
HAPPY: Don’t mention it. It’s all company money. (He laughs.)
GIRL: That’s a charming product to be selling, isn’t it?
HAPPY: Oh, gets to be like everything else. Selling is selling,
y’know.
GIRL: I suppose.
HAPPY: You don’t happen to sell, do you?
GIRL: No, I don’t sell.
HAPPY: Would you object to a compliment from a stranger? You
ought to be on a magazine cover.
GIRL (looking at him a little archly): I have been.
(Stanley comes in with a glass of champagne.)
HAPPY: What’d I say before, Stanley? You see? She’s a cover girl.
STANLEY: Oh, I could see, I could see.
HAPPY (to the Girl): What magazine?
GIRL: Oh, a lot of them. (She takes the drink.) Thank you.
HAPPY: You know what they say in France, don’t you? »Champagne
is the drink of the complexion« — Hya, Biff!

Biff’s fault
     Owing the condition which Biff grew up there, he was not bound by social rules; moreover, in act one Willy broke the rules or expectations as Biff was growing up

BIFF: Did you see the new football I got?
WILLY (examining the ball): Where’d you get a new ball?
BIFF: The coach told me to practice my passing.
WILLY: That so? And he gave you the ball, heh? BIFF: Well, I
borrowed it from the locker room. (He laughs confidentially.)
WILLY (laughing with him at the theft): I want you to return that.
HAPPY: I told you he wouldn’t like it!
BIFF (angrily): Well, I’m bringing it back!
WILLY (stopping the incipient argument, to Happy): Sure, he’s
gotta practice with a regulation ball, doesn’t he? (To Biff.)
Coach’ll probably congratulate you on your initiative!
BIFF: Oh, he keeps congratulating my initiative all the time, Pop.

Firstly, you can see how Biff unconsciously learnt not  to abide by the regulations  ;in addition, it seems that Willy encouraged him in stealing by laughing at him  when he had stolen the football from the locker room ;Furthermore, instead of disciplining  Biff for stealing the ball, Willy praised his act as initiative .As a result ,Willy had inevitably affected him through his life  .Although willy encouraged him for stealing the football in act one  , Willy accused him   when Biff stole  Bill Oliver’s fountain pen unconsciously in future in act 2 .
BIFF (at the table, now audible, holding up a gold fountain pen):...
so I’m washed up with Oliver, you understand? Are you listening
to me?
WILLY (at a loss): Yeah, sure. If you hadn’t flunked...
BIFF: Flunked what? What’re you talking about?
WILLY: Don’t blame everything on me! I didn’t flunk math —
you did! What pen?
HAPPY: That was awful dumb, Biff, a pen like that is worth —
WILLY (seeing the pen for the first time): You took Oliver’s pen?
BIFF (weakening): Dad, I just explained it to you.
WILLY: You stole Bill Oliver’s fountain pen!
BIFF: I didn’t exactly steal it! That’s just what I’ve been explaining
to you!
HAPPY: He had it in his hand and just then Oliver walked in, so
he got nervous and stuck it in his pocket!
WILLY: My God, Biff!  (Death of a Salesman 81)

As you can see If Willy disciplined him ,he would be a man who accepted the expectations of the society and did not steal the Oliver’s fountain pen .

Secondly ,adulterous affair of Biff  laid down his life as a case in point if Biff  didn’t flirt with girls such as Letta  and Miss Forsythe , he would get married and start a family, on the contrary Bernard have not only wife but two sons .

V. Conclusion

Summing up
     To sum up , the concept of binary oppositions in death of a salesman by Arthur Miller Shows reality in terms of pairs of oppositions. In fact, Willy’s big talk increases with his failure in his job on the contrary Charley is a man of few words which resulted in not only his respect but also his success .moreover, when Willy committed an adultery with a woman and lied to his family ruined his life.
Besides, Happy’s seducing the fiancées of three executives caused his unsuccessfulness in business .If Happy and Biff didn’t commit adultery with girls they would get married and have offspring .on the other hand Bernard had not only wife but also two sons .
IN addition, after Biff stole the football from the locker room, he unconsciously learnt to gain everything without permission .this feature in him caused his carrier failure in the future.


New findings
In this work with finding of some Binary opposition I found when the father of family do immoral issues, unconsciously his children learns those features.



Suggestions for Further Research

     However, I don’t want to show that I found every binary oppositions in this text .In fact , I found the binaries which shows the ignoring of ethics and the fall of main characters in death of a salesman by Arthur Miller and I want other researchers find binary oppositions in other works of Miller.












                                                                   

                                                                        Works cited
Primary Sources:
•    Miller,Arthur, Death of a salesman ,Toronto ,Thomson Wadsworth ,1970 ,
Secondary sources:
•    Bressler , Charles. Literary criticism .New Jersey :Pearson Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs,1980
•    Dutton, Charles, Death of a salesman by Arthur Miller, Yale repertory theatre

•    Eagleton, Terry .literary theory, University of Minnesota Up .1986

•    Karim, Sajjadul, A nightmare for a dreamer ,Arthur Miller's death of a salesman,

•    Nietzsche, The Birth of Tragedy. Toronto: Random House , 1967
•    Ran Deane TETU, A teacher's Guide to the Penguin Edition of Arthur Miller's Death of a salesman, Middlesex community college, Middles town , CT ,p2 ,

•    Selden, Raman. A reader's Guide to contemporary Literary Theory, New York, Harvester wheat sheaf, 1989


•    The Holy Bible, St. Luke; 23:15-18


            

     Notes

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